Step 01LIST EVENTS, ISSUES AND TRENDS
Start by listing questions relevant to current issues and observations (as the litany) at the top of the iceberg. These represent things we can tangibly see and experience in the world.
Step 02IDENTIFY UNDERLYING CAUSES
List questions that draw out the STEEP criteria: social, technological, economic, environmental, political, as well as cultural-historical issues and evolutions. These provide lens to map the structures and dynamics of the current state system.
Step 03UNCOVER PARADIGMS
List questions that draw out values and world-views that sustain the trend or legitimate the causes previously listed. These are the beliefs that underpin the system as it is today.
Step 04EXPLORE UNDERLYING METAPHORS
Discuss the beliefs, values, and assumptions that shape stakeholders' perspectives and actions, influencing the underlying structures and ultimately the observed event or issue.
Step 05DISCUSS AND REFLECT
Taking the insights derived across the multiple layers of the iceberg, reflect and discuss the relationships between the layers and how you as an individual and as a team contribute and reinforce the existing patterns that underpin the system as it manifests in the present.